Comma (Polygonia c-album)

Overwintering form
Overwintering form
Underside of overwintering form
Underside of overwintering form
Summer (<i>Hutchinsoni</i>) form
Summer (Hutchinsoni) form
Underside of <i>Hutchinsoni</i> form
Underside of Hutchinsoni form
Larva feeding on nettle
Larva feeding on nettle
Larva changing into pupa (in wet weather)
Larva changing into pupa (in wet weather)
Pupa on Nettle
Pupa on Nettle

NERC Act S41: Not listed
Local status: Common and widespread. Seems to be increasing in abundance.
Size: Medium.
Larval foodplant: Common Nettle, Elms and Hop.
No. of broods: One and a half(!) The first brood produces two forms. One is the dark overwintering form. These do not breed in the year they emerge, but overwinter and breed the following year. However some of the first brood are the lighter Hutchinsoni form, which do breed quickly to produce a second brood, which are all the dark overwintering form. The day length at a critical stage in the development of the first brood caterpillar affects which form of adult it will become.
Flight time(s): May be seen in mild spells during winter, but finally emerges from hibernation in March and flies until mid May. The first brood flies mid June to early August when the second brood begins to appear. They may fly until mid October before hibernating.
Winter: Hibernates as an adult on the side of a tree, camouflaged as a dead leaf.
Habitats: Anywhere nectar and foodplants occur.

Normalized Weekly Abundance

Flight time graph

No. of Adults

Number of adults
No. of 1km Squares

Number of 1km squares
No. of Records

Number of records
No. of Adults per record

Adults per record
Percentage of all adults

Percentage of all adults reported (of all species) in each year
Percentage of all records

Percentage of all butterfly records
No. of adults per 10,000 records

Number of adults in every 10,000 butterfly records (of all species)